The loss of bone mass and the weakening of the bones are natural consequences of aging, but this process starts around the age of 30, so it’s not only the elderly that are at risk for falls and fractures due to bone resorption.
Some of the factors that cause the decrease in bone mass density can be controlled, but others are out of one’s control. Smoking for example can be avoided, and one can practice strength exercises to keep their bones strong, but an inadequate intake of calcium, the use of asthma medications, as well as the changes in hormone levels that occur in older adults can speed up the weakening of bones.
Also, this process is accelerated by an inadequate intake of vitamin D, the lack of exposure to gravity and hypoparathyroidism, all these factors favoring the resorption of bone. When the tissue is broken down faster than it can be renewed, the density of bones starts to decrease and they become more porous, fragile and prone to fractures.
Although there are a series of conventional treatments that can help in improving bone density in osteoporotic patients, people who suffer multiple fractures, major bone trauma or individuals injured during natural disasters may require a different approach. In such cases, the use of stem cells could speed up bone repair and eliminate the risk of tumor formation.
STEM CELLS FROM BONES AND SKIN, USED FOR BONE RECONSTRUCTION
Scientists from the Gladstone Institutes have discovered a way to stimulate bone reconstruction using proteins produced by stem cells. Instead of grinding up bones from cadavers in order to extract the proteins and growth factors needed for stimulating the growth of new tissue, the researchers have extracted bone-forming proteins from stem cells.
After they treated the proteins in the lab, they injected the substances into muscle tissue of mice, in order to facilitate bone growth. The injected proteins were effective in creating new bone tissue, so there is hope that this method may be a good solution for humans as well. Unlike current treatments, the use of stem cells is safer as it doesn’t involve the transplant of cells or tissues from cadavers or other donors, so the risk for these cells to be rejected is much lower and the risk for tumor formation is very low also.
The study published in Scientific Reports concluded that proteins extracted from stem cells could be a consistent and reproducible source material for tissue regeneration [1]. This isn’t the first study to support the use of stem cells for orthopedic purposes. In 2001, another paper published by Dr. Ranieri Cancedda in the New England Journal of Medicine described the use of autologous bone marrow cells in the repairing of large bone defects.
The research showed that the osteoprogenitor cells derived from stem cells were effective in supporting the integration of macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds in damaged bones. Three patients were treated using this method and CT scans taken 6 months afterwards showed good callus formation and integration of the interfaces in all patients [2].
Even more interesting were the results obtained by a team of scientists from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA, who managed to grow new bone from stem cells harvested from skin cells. The paper was published in the Cell Reports journal, the harvested skin cells being reprogramed into equivalents of embryonic stem cells [3]. The obtained iPSCs were treated in lab conditions to differentiate into precursors of bone cells, then transplanted the obtained cells into monkeys, on a ceramic scaffold.
The implanted cells grew new bone on top of the scaffolds, researchers finding no sign of tumor. According to the researchers, this technique has two great advantages: the stem cells harvested from patient’s own cells are less likely to be attacked by one’s immune system, and iPSCs can be generated from any individual.
Although the use of stem cells for speeding up the integration of implants in damaged bones is not new, scientists are now looking to develop these methods further, so as to obtain stem cells that can promote bone regeneration and regrowth once transplanted to humans.
References:
[1] http://gladstoneinstitutes.org/pressrelease/2015-05-11/scientists-regenerate-bone-tissue-using-only-proteins-secreted-by-stem-cells
[2] http://www.healio.com/orthopedics/biologics/news/print/orthopedics-today/%7B45aecb5d-a1c0-4e13-8bf7-607f32a812bf%7D/bone-regeneration-is-possible-using-stem-cells
[3] www.cell.com/cell-reports/abstract/S2211-1247%2814%2900306-4

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  • Am I equipped to Date After My Divorce

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    Health Sex capability StoriesDating After Divorce: When Is the proper time? By Lisa derricks

    medically Reviewed by Michael W. jones,MD up December 30, 2013

    about WebMD Archives

    to shed weight divorced, Or have ended a long term romance, Well meaning relatives and friends may encourage you to start dating again soon. “Everyone ends a partnership by grieving the emotional investment. for a lot of, that occurs before they move out. Others are still mentally married after the divorce is final,

    Dena Roch started dating while looking forward to her divorce papers to come through.

    “It really helped, Because I got to see what ‘normal’ looks like, Roch states that. “I also saw that my ex wasn’t the only guy who want to be with me. It bolstered my security for dating,

    Claudia Barnett needed some alone time to heal before seeking a new special connection.

    “Your bridal has died; you need to definitely grieve that loss, Barnett speaks. “To advance, I had to be whole sentimentally, on a financial basis, emotionally, And spiritually. After I concluded some set goals, I knew the time had come,

    Here’s what experts say you must think of before dating:

    Go by your feelings, Not the calendarSome people are going to date after 2 months; Others may benefit from years. never rush. it’s important to experience the emotions associated with divorce.

    give yourself “some time to think, some time to grieve, A little possibility to find someone else, Sills alleges.

    The ex factorIf you’re still concerned about what your ex is doing or whom he’s dating, You’re too distracted to begin a healthy spousal relationship.

    “numerous people date and even marry to try to prove something to an ex, Says ed M. “you will not date somebody who’s still tangled up with an ex emotionally. Why offer that to somebody else,

    Are you open to new memories?If you were in a committed relationship for a long period, is a superb beginning a new romance may seem scary. If you’ve recently tried other stuff that bring you out of your comfort zone, you happen to be ready to date.

    “excuses have you employed something that’s an affirmation of yourself and your life made charmdate.com a new friend, started a new sport, Gotten a new hair-do, Sills requests. “You open your heart to new relationships when you’re resilient enough to endure the minuses of dating to get the pluses,

    Accept yourself as an individualYour identity has nothing concerning your dating status. Rather than jumping into a new relationship to avert being alone, Give yourself a chance to explore life for you terms.

    “You can’t heal unless you’re in isolation, Tauber tells. “You need to find single friends to have a social life with,

    stuff has changed since the last time you were datingNot only have you changed since you were last single, But so have your social life, Circle of company, And routine. You might meet a new partner through a friend or by clicking with a mysterious stranger but you may also want to consider online dating.

    “The advantage is you have a pool of those unfortunates who are looking, that you are, Sills tells people. “When you drop off the kids in class, There might be an individual there, But you don’t know them,

    Dating is an adult decisionSome single parents don’t date because they’re worried about the effect it may have on their kids. You don’t let children make other decisions for you, So don’t let them keep you from dating if that’s something you should do.

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